Scientific Literature

Use of fertility control vaccines should be carefully weighed along with other options for managing wild animals.

The method's track record of success in a variety of animals, along with its safety and the fact that it's not permanent make it an important option to consider.

Economics is a factor to consider, too. While it may be less expensive to kill urban deer or poison urban pigeons, vaccination may be seen by some as a better option.

And, in some cases, vaccination can save money. For example, the U.S. Department of the Interior currently spends more than $70 million each year to round up and care for wild horses in regions where vaccination isn't used. In this case, according to two published studies, use of fertility control vaccines could save taxpayers millions of dollars each year.

By increasing public awareness about fertility control vaccines, we hope they will more widely be considered as an option when appropriate.

Bartholow, J.M., 2008. Economic benefit of fertility control in wild horse populations. J. Wildl. Manage. 71:2811-2819.

Delsink, AK., JJ. van Altena, D. Grobler, HJ. Bertschinger, JF. Kirkpatrick, R. Slotow. 2007. Implementing immunocontraception in free-ranging African elephants at Makalali Conservancy. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association 78(1): 25–30.

Delsink, AK., JJ. van Altena, D. Grobler, HJ. Bertschinger , JF. Kirkpatrick & R. Slotow. 2006. Regulation of a small, discrete African elephant population through immunocontraception in the Makalali Conservancy, Limpopo, South Africa. South African Journal of Science 102:403-405.

Delsink, AK., JJ. van Altena, JF. Kirkpatrick, D. Grobler and R. Fayrer-Hosken. 2002. Field applications of immunocontraception in African Elephants (Loxodonta africana). Reproduction 60: 117-124

Delsink, AK., J. Kirkpatrick, JJ. van Altena, H. Bertschinger, S. Ferreira & R. Slotow. 2013. Lack of social and behavioural responses to immunocontraception application in African elephants. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 44:52-74.

De Seve, C., Boyles-Griffin, S. 2013.  An economic model demonstrating the long term cost benefits of incorporating fertility control into wild horse management programs on public lands in the United States. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 444:34-37.

Frank KM, Lyda RO, Kirkpatrick JF. 2005. Immunocontraception of captive exotic species. IV. Species differences in response to the porcine zona pellucida vaccine and the timing of booster inoculations. Zoo Biology 24:349-358.

Kirkpatrick JF, Calle PP, Kalk P, Liu IKM, Bernoco M, Turner JW. 1996. Immunocontraception of captive exotic species. II. Formosan sika deer, axis deer, Himalayan tahr, Roosevelt elk, muntjac deer, and sambar deer. J. Zoo Wildl. Med. 27:482-495.

Kirkpatrick JF, Frank KM. 2005. Fertility control in free-ranging wildlife. In: Wildlife Contraception: Issues, Methods and Applications. Asa C, Porton I (eds). Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD. Pp. 195-221.

Kirkpatrick, JF, Liu, IKM and Turner, Jr., JW  1990.  Remotely delivered immunocontraception in feral horses.  Wildlife Society Bulletin 18: 326-330.

Kirkpatrick, JF, Liu IKM, Turner, Jr., JW and Bernoco, M. 1991.   Antigen recognition in mares previously immunized with porcine zonae pellucidae.  J. Reprod. Fertil. (Suppl. 44): 321-325   

Kirkpatrick, JF, Zimmermannn, W, Kolter, L, Liu, IKM and Turner, Jr., JW. 1995. Immunocontraception of captive exotic species. I. Przewalski’s horse (Equus przewalskii) and banteng (Bos javanacus). Zoo Bio.  14: 403-413.

Kirkpatrick, JF, and Turner, A. 2002. Reversibility of action and safety during pregnancy of immunizing against porcine zona pellucida in wild mares (Equus caballus).  Reproduction (Suppl. 60): 197-202.

Kirkpatrick, JF. and Turner, A. 2003 Immunocontraception and effects on seasonal birth patterns and foal survival among barrier island horses. J. Appl. Anim. Welfare Sci.6:301-308.

Kirkpatrick JF, Turner A. (2007). Immunocontraception and increased longevity in equids. Zoo Biology 26:237-244.   

Kirkpatrick JF, Turner A. (2008) Achieving population goals in long-lived species (Equus caballus) with fertility control. Wildl. Res. 35:513-519.

Kirkpatrick JF, Rowan A, Lamberski N, Wallace R., Frank K, Lyda RO. 2009. The

Practical Side of immunocontraception: zona proteins and wildlife. J. Reprod. Immuniol. 83:151-157.

McShea WJ, Monfort SL, Hakim S, Kirkpatrick JF, Liu IKM, Turner JW, Chassy L, Munson L. 1997. Immunocontraceptive efficacy and the impact of contraception on the reproductive behaviors of white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 61:560-569.

Naugle RE, Rutberg AT, Underwood HB, Turner JW, Liu IKM. 2002. Field testing of immunocontraception on white-tailed deer (Odocoleus virginanus) on Fire Island National Seashore, New York, USA. Reproduction (Suppl. 60): 143-153.

Rutberg AT, Naugle RE, Thiele LA, Liu IKM. 2004. Effects of immunocontraception on a suburban population of white-tailed deer Odocoileus virginianus. Biol. Conservation. 116:243-250.

Rutberg AT, Naugle R. 2008. Population-level effects of immunocontraception in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Wildl. Res. 35:494-501.

Rutberg, A.T., Naugle, R.E., and Verret, F. 2013. Single treatment porcine zona pellucida immunocontraception associated with reduction of a population of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine  44: 75-84.

Rutberg, A.T., Naugle, R.E, Turner, J.W. Jr., Fraker, M.A., and Flanagan, D.R.  2013. Field testing of single-administration porcine zona pellucida contraceptive vaccines in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).  Wildlife Research 40:281-288

Shideler SE, Stoops MA, Gee NA, Howell JA, Lasley BL. 2002. Use of porcine zona pellucida (PZP) vaccine as a contraceptive agent in free-ranging tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes). Reproduction (Suppl. 60):169-176.

Turner, A, and  Kirkpatrick, JF. 2002. Effects of immunocontraception on population, longevity and body condition in wild  mares (Equus caballus).  Reproduction (Suppl. 60): 187-195.

Turner JW, Liu IKM, Kirkpatrick JF 1992. Remotely-delivered immunocontraception of captive white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 56:154-157.

Turner JW, Kirkpatrick JF, Liu IKM. 1996. Effectiveness, reversibility and serum antibody titers associated with immunocontraception of white-tailed deer. J. Wildl. Manage. 60:45-51

Turner, JW, Jr.,  Liu, IKM and Kirkpatrick, JF. 1996. Remotely-delivered immunocontraception in free-roaming feral burros. J. Reprod. Fert.  107:31-35.

Turner, JW, Jr., Liu, IKM, Rutberg, AT and Kirkpatrick, JF.  1997.  Immunocontraception limits foal production in free-roaming feral horses in Nevada.  J. Wildl. Manage. 61: 873-880.

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Information: Animal Fertility Control Vaccine
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